Calaveras, in the Southern Mines, had a more ethnically diverse population, and the county swarmed with representatives from throughout the globe. The first to arrive in 1848 were the Californios and the Mexicans, followed by those from the Pacific Rim as reports of gold spread via sailing ships. Following on their heels were the Forty-Niners from the Eastern States and Europe who had jumped aboard ships and launched overland treks in 1848 bound for California. This initial “rush” lasted for about a decade before the easy gold was exhausted and the dream of instant wealth dissolved. People, however, kept coming, with later migrations from Southern Europe adding more flavor to the Mother Lode stew.
Chileans and Mexicans arrived with considerable mining skills. The Chinese, a legendary group of hard-working miners, railroad builders, cooks, and ditch-diggers, composed 22 percent of the county population in 1860. The Anglo-Americans, the majority of inhabitants, had subgroups of English, Irish, Welsh, and Scots, as well as American Yankees, southerners, and “Pikers” from Missouri. Blacks, both slave and free, came to try their luck. Europeans in the early days included Germans, Jews, Swiss, French, Basque, Italians, and Eastern Europeans, as well as miners from New Zealand and Australia.
In towns and mining camps, these groups tended to gather with
fellow nationals. Discrimination drove some apart, while others
settled together for the camaraderie of familiar languages and
customs. Towns teemed with restaurants, lodging houses, and bars
catering to particular nationalities, and a babble of languages
filled the streets. Some of these groups left descendents who
remain today, and some left names on the landscape such as Chile
Camp, Italian Gardens, China Gulch, Negro Hill, and French